Make-up(Part II)

Saturday, March 10, 2012

I was thinking to do the post connected to my make-up products, part II or whether make-up in general. And, I decided it to be the second thing.
So, the rest of my make-up products, skincare products will be posted near in the future:P
Hmm, I really don't know when this post will end or how long will it be, because I have so many things to write about, so many things are on my mind right now. I'll try to be precise(if that's possible) and not talk tooooo much(I feel I will talk too much, as there are tons of articles I read on the Internet and in the books.)

Make-up history deserves at least 10 posts per each period but what can I do. I'm not a journalist or the writing about history, make up and fashion is my job(unfortunately), I'm just a student who is curious about everything and want to know more and more. For me Fashion is not only a style of living but a lot more. That's why I opened this blog 2 years ago. At the beginning I didn't know if I'm going to be blogging every day or continue blogging at all, even though, there were a bunch of folders with my pictures, that had the need to be posted somewhere, expressing my thoughts and what I truly love. I didn't even knew anything about following, about commenting, I was just posting the pictures telling where I bought this or that, my inspirations, etc. That was all. But now, when I'm into a blogger world everything seems so different.

Now, make up is not something that was strange to our grand grand grand mothers. Cosmetics were used  even in Ancient Egypt in the year 4,000 BC. The products like kohl and henna have their roots in north Africa.
From the copper and lead ore that the ancient Egyptians used to create the world's first cosmetics to the scientifically advanced products of today that can do everything from hide pores, smooth complexions, and turn the pale green of your eyes a vivid shade of emerald, makeup has been an integral part of humankind for thousands of years. Over the centuries, women used burnt matches to darken their eyes, berries to stain their lips and young boys' urine to fade their freckles. They even swallowed ox blood in some misguided attempt to improve their complexions.
Not only women, but also men wore make up centuries ago. 
The earliest historical record of makeup comes from the 1st Dynasty of Egypt (c.3100-2907 BC). Tombs from this era have revealed unguent jars, which in later periods were scented. Unguent was a substance extensively used by men and women to keep their skin hydrated and supple and to avoid wrinkles from the dry heat. The women of Egypt also decorated their eyes by applying dark green color to the under lid and blackening the lashes and the upper lid with kohl, which was made from antimony (a metallic element) or soot. It is believed that the Jews adopted the use of makeup from the Egyptians, since references to the painting of faces appear in the New Testament section of the Bible.

Roman philosopher Plautus (254-184 BC) wrote, "A woman without paint is like food without salt." Of course, Plautus was a dramatist, which would explain his preference for the look of a "painted woman" at that time.

Romans widely used cosmetics by the middle of the 1st century AD. Kohl was used for darkening eyelashes and eyelids, chalk was used for whitening the complexion, and rouge was worn on the cheek. Depilatories were utilized at that time and pumice was used for cleaning the teeth.
 Women wore white lead and chalk on their faces in Greco-Roman society. Persian women used henna dyes to stain their hair and faces with the belief that these dyes enabled them to summon the majesty of the earth. 
During the European middle ages, pale skin was a sign of wealth. Sixth century women sought drastic measures to achieve that look by bleeding themselves, although, in contrast, Spanish prostitutes wore pink makeup. Thirteenth century affluent women donned pink lipstick as proof they could afford synthetic makeup.

During the 1800's, women would use belladonna to make their eyes appear more luminous, even though they were aware it was poisonous. Many cosmetics were made by local pharmacists, known as apothecaries in England, and common ingredients included mercury and nitric acid. Hair dye was made from coal tar, which is now illegal in America.

''You Are What You Eat''   

 In the late 18th to mid–19th century, the ultra–pale look persisted. A “lady” didn’t need to work in the sun, and therefore should be pale...translucent, even. Some historians even speculate that consumption was so common, it became fashionable to look as though you were suffering from TB. Indeed, the white skin, flushed cheek, and luminous eye of the illness was frequently imitated with white lead and rouge To make they eyes bright, some women ate small amounts of arsenic or washed their eyes with orange and lemon juice—or, worse yet, rinsed them with belladonna, the juice of the poisonous nightshade.

It might interest you to know that men wore makeup until the 1850's. George IV spent a fortune on cold cream, powders, pastes, and scents. However, not all men wore makeup, as many looked upon a man with rouged cheeks as a dandy.
Victorians abhorred makeup and associated its use with prostitutes and actresses (many considered them one and the same). Any visible hint of tampering with one's natural color would be looked upon with disdain. At that time, a respectable woman would use home-prepared face masks, most of which were based on foods such as oatmeal, honey, and egg yolk. For cleansing, rosewater or scented vinegars were used. As a beauty regimen, a woman would pluck her eyebrows, massage castor oil into her eyelashes, use rice powder to dust her nose, and buff her nails to a shine. Lipstick was not used, but clear pomade would be applied to add sheen. However some of these products contained a dye to discretely enhance natural lip color. For a healthy look, red beet juice would be rubbed into the cheeks, or the cheeks would be pinched (out of sight, of course). For bright eyes, a drop of lemon juice in each eye would do the trick. When makeup began to resurface, full makeup was still seen as sinful, although natural tones were accepted to give a healthy, pink-cheek look. 
 The real evolution of make up actually began during the 1910's. By then, women made their own form of mascara by adding hot beads of wax to the tips of their eyelashes. Some women would use petroleum jelly for this purpose. The first mascara formulated was named after Mabel, the sister of its creator, T. L. Williams, who utilized this method. This mascara is known today as Maybelline. In 1914, Max Factor introduced his pancake makeup. Vogue featured Turkish women using henna to outline their eyes, and the movie industry immediately took interest. This technique made the eyes look larger, and the word "vamp" became associated with these women, vamp being short for vampire. 
 During this decade, the first pressed powders were introduced which included a mirror and puff for touchups. Pressed powder blush followed soon after. The lipstick metal case, invented by Maurice Levy, became popular. Also, during this time, lipstick was tattooed onto the lips by George Burchett, who was also known as the "Beauty Doctor". This method did not always work, and you can imagine the terrible consequences

By the late '20's, visible makeup was considered a must by rural women but was still frowned upon by the country girls. During this decade, lip gloss was introduced by Max Factor. New shades of red lipstick were developed, although were soap-based and very drying. The first eyelash curler came on the scene, called Kurlash. Even though it was expensive and difficult to use, this did not detract from its popularity. Mascara in cake and cream form was extremely vogue. 

The 1920s also brought about another revolution: the Tan. No longer did women strive for the pale look en masse. Why the sudden shift? While the wealthy prided themselves on not working, and therefore staying indoors (resulting in a pale complexion), the wealthy of the 1920s prided themselves on not working—and going outside to play. The rich now laid about in the sun, making their skin golden. Suddenly, everyone longed for that “healthy” bronzed look.

1930s - Important Lips and Nails

 Lipstick grew redder throughout the 1930s changing colour every year. Lipstick was applied quite thickly. One daily paper commented that kissing had gone out of fashion due to the high cost of lipstick. But lipstick in the 1930s produced an undesirable stain and Oxblood a favourite colour may well have been the cause of such a remark.
 Fingernails became scarlet and were grown to extreme length, whilst toenails were contrasted in pink nail enamel. On the cheeks and ear lobes rouge was worn. Eyebrows were plucked to a thinner line in the 1930s than the 1920s. Sometimes they were completely plucked to a thin pencil line substitute, some women even shaved them with disastrous end results as the brows never grew back. There was also a fashion for false eyelashes. 
1940s - Make Do With Little Make Up
 In the  1940s make was kept to a minimum due to a shortage of constituents and the seeming frivolity of its use.

Now, I have to mention Biba make-up. I'm fascinated by the pigmented and vibrant colors. Biba was born in Poland, but raised in England, Her full name is Barbara Hulanicki. She began her career in Fashion in the early 1960's working as a freelance fashion illustrator covering all the important fashion collections for the major publications of the day, including Women's Wear Daily, British Vogue, the Times, the Observer and the Sunday Times. In 1964 she founded, with her late husband, Stephen Fitz-Simon, the boutique BIBA, beginning as a small mail-order business featured in the fashion columns of newspapers such as the DAILY MIRROR. 
In 1970 Biba Cosmetics were launched and by the following year they were available from concessions in Paris, Milan, New York, California and Tokyo as well as 300 Dorothy Perkins Stores across the UK. The dresses and prints may be the things that first spring to mind when recalling Biba but it was the make-up line that became the most successful and profitable part of the business.
Biba totally revolutionised what was considered acceptable for eye, lip and face colours years before anyone else did. Blushers, contouring products and face glosses came in every shade from blue to green to black! There were tons of amazing metallic silvers, coppers and golds for nails, cheeks and face and lipstick came in every shade from black to white and everything in between. The key Biba make-colours were blackish mulberries, blueberries, rusts, browns, mustard yellows, dark teals, mahoganies and plums, mirroring the colours of the main clothing collections. The Biba eye look was not about the harsh graphic lines of the 60’s but more about big soft round clouds of colour.
 Barbara drew inspiration from many sources but her main source was the opulent period at the end of the 20’s and early 30’s, she was 100% in love with everything deco.
 Everything Barbara Hulinicki did was a first. Not only was there the exciting, and then unimaginable, colour palette, but up and down the country, Biba make-up counters with mirrors were packed full of girls who were encouraged for the first time ever to try before buying (something I always recommend myself!) Even more than trying, these girls experimented with daring and outrageous looks. Barbara says that girls would turn up in the morning with scrubbed faces so they could completely make themselves up in Biba before wowing everyone at work! Biba was the first cosmetics range that didn’t have pink foundations, instead using yellow tones. Barbara even wanted to have a green foundation in the range! And in 1972, Biba created the first ever range of cosmetics aimed at women with dark skin tones.
Biba gave room to men to experiment with make up. Lou Reed and Freddie Mercury were both fans of the black nail polish and there were so many men wearing glam rock make up. The make up wearing guys of the 1970s paved the way for the new romantics of the 1980s and even the punks and goths who were to come.

From the 1930's through the 1950's, various movie stars proved to be the models for current trends in makeup. Remember Audrey Hepburn's deeply outlined cat eyes? With the '60's and the hippies came a more liberated makeup look, from white lips and Egyptian-lined eyes to painted images on faces. Heavily lined eyes continued through the '70's and '80's with a wide range of eye shadow colors. Today's trend seems to have reverted to the more natural look with a blending of styles from the past.
 In today's world, a woman has literally hundreds of cosmetics to choose from, with a wide variety of colors and uses. For a younger look, the options available are as simple as skin hydrators and rejuvenators, advancing to chemical skin peels, the now-popular Botox, collagen injections, and ending with the more-drastic surgical facelift. 
 But what is the most important is to reflect on one's inner beauty as the real beauty of a woman. Outer beauty will not remain forever, no matter what drastic measures are taken. We have all heard the saying, "The eyes are the windows to the soul". Look into your own orbits, take stock of the woman inside, and be happy with who you are. This will reflect on your outlook on life, which will send a message to others, and will be returned to you through their reactions to the beautiful you.

When you think of make-up artists out there, no one is being that innovative, as the innovative and daring things were done even by the Egyptians.
 Now I'll post try to show this make-up evolution history via pictures. I think that this will be much more interesting part, than just talking and talking.
As I've gone too far, I'll try just to focus on the most innovative make-up artists(better through their models) like Marilyn Monroe, Audrey Hepburn, Brigitte Bardot, Twiggy, etc.
I'll just start with the ancient ones, and then the modern ones.
you can see the black eyeliner all over the eyelids on the picture below
Cleopatra make-up isnpired look could be seen on Elizabeth Taylor, and I really love it! Some of my favourite make-up looks.

There are eve some paintings/pictures of 17th and early 18th century
 it could clearly be seen that this woman is putting make-up
 This is the painting of Marquise de Pompadour at the Toilet Table,1758 by Francois Boucher
you can clearly see that she's using blusher

 Even back then, they exfoliated their skin and used toners
 This is the place(I don't remember where exactly)where women came to learn how to apply make up. This was some kind of make-up school

 Sponges. We see them on a lot of the pictures. It's obvious that women used them quite regularly

 Some of the Vintage make-up gadgets. The golden one that looks like little bag is compact powder. And this silver gadgets are used in World War. It was a cigarette tool, and women used it to hide their lipsticks there.
 Bright colors

 This powder dating from the 50s inspired Vogue cover, and the Vogue cover inspired Vanity Fair. The third picture is dating from 2010
 We can see pink undertones here. What a lovely color

They even did perfect manicures
 Experimental 70's make up that became popular among hippies. This kind of make up is best representing the hippie era

Twiggy  is kind of the best representative girls of hippies and 60's/70's make up style

Marilyn Monroe is kind of iconic make up representative woman. Her photographers kept saying that Marilyn  knew every secret of make up. That you do not wake up and look like Marilyn. She kept her secrets pretty well, and had her own make-up artist that later in her career created that Marilyn look that we know today. It was mainly focused on the lips and eyebrows. In the pictures below, you can clearly see that her eyebrows changed and were drawn differently. Interesting fact about her face, is that she had 2 surgeries of her nose(she didn't like it even after the surgeries) and she asked of her make-up artist to contour it everytime  he did her make up. So on the pictures, it could clearly  be seen that her nose is a little bit contoured.
 Don't pay attention to the ugly font and lines I drew in paint(I wanted to do it as quickly as possible, but I hope you got the point)

 Beautiful pink lipstick<3

 You can see that Marilyn skin looks so glowing and fresh. She used to say that matt skin makes you look older. She preferred glowing shiny skin. She used to put layers and layers of vaseline and then foundation.
 She would put red lipstick all over, then she would put a bit of darker shade on the outer corners,and lighter one in the middle. And above all, a but of pearly shining powder in the middle. It made her lips look much bigger.

 You can clearly see the different brow shape

Her favourite cosmetics was Erno Laszlo
 Now I'll post some pictures of Audrey Hepburn and her make up style

 She constantly used white pencil and pink lipstick. Her eyebrows got thicker and thicker, until she found out the perfect shape, and we all know her for that. She's now famous for her thick eyebrows and kitty eyes.
 Compare the eyebrows on the pictures I put together!
 here also:)

Now I would like to show you some of my favourite looks of Bridgitte Bardot and one picture of Sophia Loren make up

 Dark eyeshadows, bright lips

I think that a lot of the stars nowadays are recreating her look. Especially Adele and Lana Del Ray. The hairstyle and the make up of 60's and 70's.
You can see that on the pictures below:

Now I'll just finish off with a couple of modern day make up pictures. I hope it was interesting to read and watch. For me, there's nothing more innovative as the 18th and 19th century make up. Nothing that fascinates me that much as the looks of some back in the 20s and even in Victorian era. Make up evolution is fascinating, and it is obvious that our make up is more qualified. The technology has improved. The color ranges grew. Make up brushes reached their peek, therefore, perfection in make up art has reached its top.

Huh, I can not believe I've finished the post. I'm sorry about the length of it. I just did my best to write as short sentences as possible.
Thank you for stopping by and reading. I appreciate your comments.
Hugs and kisses